International Journal of Turbomachinery, Propulsion and Power Latest open access articles published in Int. J. Turbomach. Propuls. Power at https://www.mdpi.com/journal/ijtpp
- IJTPP, Vol. 9, Pages 10: Quantification of Blade Vibration Amplitude in Turbomachinerypor Alexandra P. Schneider el marzo 4, 2024 a las 12:00 am
Experimental monitoring of blade vibration in turbomachinery is typically based on blade-mounted strain gauges. Their signals are used to derive vibration amplitudes which are compared to modal scope limits, including a safety factor. According to industrial guidelines, this factor is chosen conservatively to ensure safe operation of the machine. Within the experimental campaign with the open-test-case composite fan ECL5/CATANA, which is representative for modern lightweight Ultra High Bypass Ratio (UHBR) architectures, measurements close to the stability limit have been conducted. Investigation of phenomena like non-synchronous vibrations (NSV) and rotating stall require a close approach to the stability limit and hence demand for accurate (real-time) quantification of vibration amplitudes to ensure secure operation without exhaustive safety margins. Historically, short-time Fourier transforms of vibration sensors are used, but the complex nature of the mentioned coupled phenomena has an influence on amplitude accuracy, depending on evaluation parameters, as presented in a previous study using fast-response wall-pressure transducers. The present study investigates the sensitivity of blade vibration data to evaluation parameters for different spectral analysis methods and provides guidelines for fast and robust surveillance of critical vibration modes.
- IJTPP, Vol. 9, Pages 9: Low-Noise Airfoils for Turbomachinery Applications: Two Examples of Optimizationpor Nicola Casari el marzo 2, 2024 a las 12:00 am
Automotive fans, small wind turbines, and manned and unmanned aerial vehicles (MAVs/UAVs) are just a few examples in which noise generated by the flow’s interaction with aerodynamic surfaces is a major concern. The current work shows the potential of a new airfoil shape to minimize noise generation, maintaining a high lift-to-drag ratio in a prescribed Reynolds regime. This investigation uses a multifidelity approach: a low-fidelity semiempirical model is exploited to evaluate the sound pressure level (SPL). Fast evaluation of a low-cost function enables the computation of a large range of possible profiles, and accuracy is added to the low-fidelity response surface with high-fidelity CFD data. The constraint of maintaining a predefined range of the lift coefficient and lift-to-drag ratio ensures the possibility of using this profile in usual design procedures.
- IJTPP, Vol. 9, Pages 8: Numerical and Experimental Investigations on the Acoustic Characteristics of a Single-Stage Centrifugal Pumppor Christian Lehr el marzo 1, 2024 a las 12:00 am
The acoustic properties of a single-stage centrifugal pump with low specific speed are investigated by means of compressible 3D CFD simulations (URANS) and experiments. In order to determine the pump’s acoustic transmission and excitation characteristics, a four-pole approach in the frequency domain is used. The transmission parameters determined by simulation are compared to experiments in water and air as functions of the Helmholtz number. The results indicate that the acoustic transmission characteristics within the experiments are significantly influenced by the structural compliance of the volute casing in terms of a fluid–structure interaction (FSI). A modelling approach for a one-dimensional representation of the centrifugal pump’s acoustic transmission characteristics in the time and frequency domains is applied to the current pump. As one model parameter, the effective speed of sound in the 1D model needs to be reduced to 607 ms−1 to account for the FSI. The agreement of the simulation results and the experiments underlines the above statement about the influence of the FSI. In a last step, the acoustic excitation parameter, depicted as monopole and dipole amplitudes, at two different blade-passing frequencies (fBP≈[111;169] Hz) are determined for several operating points. Especially for dipole amplitudes, a good agreement between experiments and simulations can be seen. The monopole amplitudes are also of similar orders of magnitude, but show stronger deviations. The cause of discrepancies between the 3D CFD simulations and experiments is believed to be the neglected influence of the FSI and surface roughness as well as the inaccurate reproduction of flow separation at the volute’s tongue due to the use of wall functions. A final important observation made during the numerical investigations is that the excitation mechanisms at the blade-passing frequency are probably independent of the piping system’s acoustic impedance.
- IJTPP, Vol. 9, Pages 7: Multidisciplinary Automation in Design of Turbine Vane Cooling Channelspor Sanjay Nambiar el febrero 19, 2024 a las 12:00 am
In the quest to enhance the efficiency of gas turbines, there is a growing demand for innovative solutions to optimize high-pressure turbine blade cooling. However, the traditional methods for achieving this optimization are known for their complexity and time-consuming nature. We present an automation framework to streamline the design, meshing, and structural analysis of cooling channels, achieving design automation at both the morphological and topological levels. This framework offers a comprehensive approach for evaluating turbine blade lifetime and enabling multidisciplinary design analyses, emphasizing flexibility in turbine cooling design through high-level CAD templates and knowledge-based engineering. The streamlined automation process, supported by a knowledge base, ensures continuity in both the mesh and structural simulation automations, contributing significantly to advancements in gas turbine technology.
- IJTPP, Vol. 9, Pages 5: Design of a 130 MW Axial Turbine Operating with a Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Mixture for the SCARABEUS Projectpor Abdelrahman S. Abdeldayem el febrero 2, 2024 a las 12:00 am
Supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2) can be mixed with dopants such as titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4), hexafluoro-benzene (C6F6), and sulphur dioxide (SO2) to raise the critical temperature of the working fluid, allowing it to condense at ambient temperatures in dry solar field locations. The resulting transcritical power cycles have lower compression work and higher thermal efficiency. This paper presents the aerodynamic flow path design of a utility-scale axial turbine operating with an 80–20% molar mix of CO2 and SO2. The preliminary design is obtained using a mean line turbine design method based on the Aungier loss model, which considers both mechanical and rotor dynamic criteria. Furthermore, steady-state 3D computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations are set up using the k-ω SST turbulence model, and blade shape optimisation is carried out to improve the preliminary design while maintaining acceptable stress levels. It was found that increasing the number of stages from 4 to 14 increased the total-to-total efficiency by 6.3% due to the higher blade aspect ratio, which reduced the influence of secondary flow losses, as well as the smaller tip diameter, which minimised the tip clearance losses. The final turbine design had a total-to-total efficiency of 92.9%, as predicted by the CFD results, with a maximum stress of less than 260 MPa and a mass flow rate within 1% of the intended cycle’s mass flow rate. Optimum aerodynamic performance was achieved with a 14-stage design where the hub radius and the flow path length are 310 mm and 1800 mm, respectively. Off-design analysis showed that the turbine could operate down to 88% of the design reduced mass flow rate with a total-to-total efficiency of 80%.